Antarctica SMB Projections

“Projections of Antarctic SMB changes over the 21st century thus indicate a negative contribution to sea level because of the projected widespread increase in snowfall
associated with warming air temperatures (Krinner et al., 2007; Uotila et al., 2007; Bracegirdle et al., 2008). Several studies (Krinner et al., 2007; Uotila et al., 2007; Bengtsson et al., 2011) have shown that the precipitation increase is directly linked to atmospheric warming via the increased moisture holding capacity of warmer air, and is therefore
larger for scenarios of greater warming. The relationship is exponential, resulting in an increase of SMB as a function of Antarctic SAT change evaluated in various recent studies with high-resolution (~60 km) models as 3.7% °C–1 (Bengtsson et al., 2011), 4.8% °C–1 (Ligtenberg et al., 2013) and ~7% °C–1 (Krinner et al., 2007). These agree well with the sensitivity of 5.1 ± 1.5% °C–1 (one standard deviation) of CMIP3 AOGCMs (Gregory and Huybrechts, 2006).” – AR5

Sea Level Rise and the Little Ice Age

““This result is consistent with recent findings that beside the anthropogenic signature, a non-negligible fraction of the observed 20th century sea level rise still represents a response to pre-industrial natural climate variations such as the Little Ice Age” – a period of low temperatures which occurred between 1300 and 1850.”

http://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/barbara-hollingsworth/4-peer-reviewed-studies-find-no-observable-sea-level-effect-man

The Power Couple: This Battery And Jet Engine Hybrid Will Help California Grab More Renewables

“These natural-gas-burning turbines can quickly ramp up and pick up the slack when renewables drop off. But even the fastest peakers take several minutes to reach full power, forcing operators to run them at minimum load to keep them ready, burn gas and put more wear on the machines. “This is inefficient combustion that needs extra fuel, costs money and generates unnecessary greenhouse emissions,” Kivran says. “It’s not the ideal, and not the only possible solution.””

“That’s why Kivran and her colleagues at GE Energy Connections decided to bring peakers and batteries together and wrap them in a single, efficient package with sophisticated power management software. With this hybrid system, the turbine can be turned off, and the battery will  respond instantly.”

http://www.gereports.com/power-couple-battery-jet-engine-hybrid-will-help-california-grab-renewables/

Ocean land experiment

Ocean Land

The atmosphere is a plexiglass enclosure. The land is something that will absorb some warmth but hold it for only a short time. The Sun is cycled on and off to see both day and night activity. During the day, the water captures joules and releases some of them. It increases humidity levels. Joules movement is from Land to Water during the day as the Water lags the Land. During night the joules move from Water to Land warming it. At night the sources of joules are the Water warmed during the day plus any warmth remaining from the prior day plus a small contribution from the cooling Land. The Land is a minor source for Water warming. Water being better able to absorb and store joules is the major source for the system.

Now add CO2.

The Land joules have their old path, into the Water. The land can punch more into the Water as less is lost to the TOA. The Water will lose less to the Atmosphere during sunny days. The water has now warmed because of the CO2. Its SW absorption is the same. At first it emits less because of the CO2, but then it has more to emit which does it, while having greater storage. The water has more joules than before and will emit those to the Land for a longer time each night. CO2 has lowered TOA loss until the new warmer equilibrium is reached. Each night the Water tries to reach equilbrium with the Land which has little storage so it’s a waypoint on the way to the TOA. It is the Water warming the Land more than before with the help of CO2.

The atmosphere has no heat storage memory but the ocean does

 

  • A number of model studies show increases in warming over land are due to warming in the oceans and subsequent transport of heat over land rather than through direct radiative forcing (Compo and Sardeshmukh, 2009;Lambert et al., 2011;Geoffroy et al., 2015). If ocean warming due to radiative forcing is compared to direct increases in sea surface temperature, the warming over land is little different (Dommenget, 2009). This ocean–land effect is much greater than the land–ocean effect, where increasing temperature over land has little effect on the ocean (Dommenget, 2009; Lambert et al., 2011). The oceans are estimated to contribute 80– 90% of the warming on land in one estimate (Dommenget, 2009) with horizontal energy transport contributing 70% in another (Geoffroy et al., 2015). Uncoupling transport between land and ocean leads to little warming for either, showing it is the coupled relationship between the two that is important (Lambert et al., 2011).

    If ocean surface warming is gradual, the land response will be gradual, but if warming arises out of nonlinear interactions between the ocean and atmosphere (involving land as per the coupled transport process above) nonlinear warming on land would follow almost immediately, perhaps driven by the processes described by Reid and Beaugrand (2012). Under this hypothesis, decadal climate regime change arising out of ocean‐atmosphere interactions is capable of producing step changes in mean sea surface temperature. Consequently, these step changes could be transmitted to adjacent continental areas and/or though teleconnections. The atmosphere has no heat storage memory but the ocean does. If the added heat energy trapped by anthropogenic greenhouse gases follows the same path as natural heat energy trapped by naturally occurring greenhouse gases, the interaction of external forcing with internal variability is a logical result.

    The atmosphere has no heat storage memory but the ocean does.”

    It’s not expected to store it. It does remember it has more CO2 in it, so it remembers to retain it longer. We can say that’s still storage, just weak storage. The oceans remember the climate from centuries ago. The Antarctic land ice remembers further back with its mass. The land temperatures depend on what the ocean SST is and how much volume of the near surface atmosphere crosses from oceans to land.

    Uncoupling transport between land and ocean leads to little warming for either, showing it is the coupled relationship between the two that is important (Lambert et al., 2011).”

    Why? The oceans if they don’t transport, just reabsorbs the warmth with their massive thermal capacity or it goes TOA. And the atmosphere over land doesn’t even have the storage to hold onto the additional warmth after raising the average temperature something small but still material and real. It is fed by ocean warmth for sustained material increases.

    Now back to my rigid jet stream theory. West to East flow from the Pacific to the Americas. From the Atlantic to the Europe and Africa. The rigid jet is a warming planet. With good traction in the hemisphere’s Winter. The wavy jet loses West to East transport. Tsonis 2007 talked about a wave 2 and wave 3 anomaly at the beginning of that paper which I interpreted a rigid (2) and wavy (3) jet stream.