“The most commonly used data sets combine historical observations of near surface air temperatures at land stations with global data sets of sea surface temperatures (SST) obtained from a changing mix of ship-based and buoy measurements.” – ucar.edu
Minnett argues that GHG increase heat in the oceans:
As I understand it, reduced longwave radiation is emitted from the oceans because of increased CO2. We then measure the atmospheric temperature by counting from the wrong side of sea surface interface when we use SSTs. In joules the amount of increase in the Ocean Heat Content (OHC) is staggering. I think it is moderating atmospheric temperatures. But this moderating should not then be counted as part of the atmospheric temperature. It cannot be both part of OHC and the atmospheric temperature. That’s double counting the same thing.
Let’s consider a significant El Nino. The Indian Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) spreads out to the East. OHC hasn’t changed much as the spread out warm water has just started emitting to the atmosphere. The atmospheric temperature spikes before the OHC has dropped much. As significant cooling to the spread out water occurs, the OHC does drop but atmospheric temperatures measured at the SST also drops which doesn’t seem possible. It seems difficult to reconcile a dropping OHC with a decreased atmospheric temperature. This kind of thing happens when we’re not correctly counting.