A very good explanation of Chaos Theory by Professor Robert Sapolsky of Stanford University:
A few things to watch for in the video:
His explanation of noise in the data. Sometimes the noise is not noise, it is the system. That is people may not realize they are seeing chaotic behavior. While Chaos is an exciting area of Science, some consider it noise and try to remove it. But in some cases, it is the system.
Scale. One way to try to sum this up is to say, On all scales. It may be that we find Chaos on all time scales, and all size scales.
The limits of Reductive Science. It may be that a linear approach used on a non-linear system is less than ideal.
The Climate is an example of a non-linear dynamical system. These systems can exhibit Chaotic behavior and it has been argued that our Climate does that.